Our Departments

Pulmonary Medicine

Head of Department - Dr. V. K. Agarwal

Common diseases

  • Asthma
  • COPD
  • Tuberculosis
  • Pneumonia

The department of pulmonary medicine at Jeevan Jyoti Hospital provides all that is necessary for high quality care of patients like excellent resources and state-of-the-art equipment required for diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases.

The department has a fully equipped pulmonary function test laboratory .

Bronchoscopy is an integral part of any modern pulmonology unit and we have a videobronchoscopy unit for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Allergy testing and its treatment are beneficial to the patients suffering from the various types of allergy which is increasing day by day.

We have specialised team to look after the patients requiring intensive care management.

Special programme:

Pulmonary Rehabilitation
Asthma is an airway disease caused by inflammation, which makes the airways red, swollen, narrower and extra-sensitive to irritants. This leads to recurrent attacks of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing. Asthma does not stay the same, but changes over time, and every person with asthma has good and bad days. However, if asthma is properly treated, one can enjoy long periods without symptoms or attacks. The causes of asthma are not fully understood. Asthma is usually caused by a mixture of hereditary (which a person is born with) and environmental factors.

Amongst various types of Asthma, allergens are also common although all type of asthma may not be associated with allergy.

Treatment of asthma requires two types of medicines, preventers and relievers. Preventers are medicines that prevent asthma attacks from starting. The most effective and most commonly used preventer medicines are inhaled glucocorticosteroids. Reliever medicines, like inhaled salbutamol, Salmeterol etc, provide rapid relief from an asthma attack by quickly opening up the narrowed airways (dilating the bronchi).

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):
COPD has two main components, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In chronic bronchitis, the lining in the breathing tubes (airways) becomes red, swollen and produces excess mucus. Mucus blocks the air tubes making it difficult to breathe.

In emphysema the air sacs (alveoli) become damaged, less elastic and permanently dilated. This makes it difficult to push all of the air out of the lungs, the lungs do not empty efficiently and therefore contain more air than normal. The fresh air cannot enter freely making it difficult for oxygen to get into the blood and carbon dioxide to leave the blood. Therefore, extra effort is needed to breathe resulting in a person feeling short of breath.

Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of COPD. Smoking causes 80 to 90 percent of all COPD. Environmental factors and genetics may also cause COPD. For example, heavy exposure to certain dusts at work, chemicals, and indoor or outdoor air pollution can contribute to COPD.

The most common signs of COPD are shortness of breath, cough, and/or sputum production that does not go away. It needs visit to your doctor and evaluation for the need of a breathing test called spirometry. It is a simple test done to measure your lung capacity.

The first and the most important treatment in smokers are to stop smoking. This is the best way to keep COPD from worsening. Medications are usually given to widen the airways (bronchodilators), reduce swelling of the airways (inhaled steroids), and/or treat infection (antibiotics).

Good nutrition, oxygen therapy, and exercise can give support to the treatment of COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs offer supervised exercise and education for those with breathing problems.

COPD cannot be cured. While symptoms may vary from time to time, the lungs can still have disease, therefore, COPD is for life. By quitting smoking, taking regular medication, learning to manage their condition after attending pulmonary rehabilitation programme, patients can continue to lead a fulfilling life.

Tuberculosis (TB):
It is a communicable, but curable bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lungs are primarily involved, but the infection can spread to other organs.

TB is spread through the air when a person with TB in the lungs or throat coughs or sneezes, sending TB germs in the air. When other people breathe in these germs they may become infected. The primary stage of the infection is usually asymptomatic (without symptoms). Pulmonary TB develops in the minority of people whose immune systems do not successfully contain the primary infection. In this case, the disease may occur within weeks after the primary infection. TB may also lie dormant for years and reappear after the initial infection is contained.

This TB 'infection' becomes ' disease' when the body's defenses are weak, due to aging, a serious illness, stressful event, drug or alcohol abuse, HIV infection (the virus that causes AIDS) or other conditions. When inactive TB germs become active, they multiply and damage the lungs or other parts of the body and the disease develops. Only about 10% of people infected with TB germs develop TB disease.

Patients of TB may develop some or all of the following symptoms:
  • Cough for more than 3 weeks
  • Fever esp. evening rise fever
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Night sweats
  • Sputum with or without blood
  • Chest pain

Tests required for diagnoses of TB are:
  • Chest X-ray
  • AFB smear and culture
  • Montoux test
  • CT scan
  • Thoracentesis
  • Tissue Biopsy / FNAC

The antitubercular treatment is with combinations of rifampin , isoniazid , pyrazinamide , ethambutol , or occasionally others. The treatment requires regular supervision to check for any side effects and make sure treatment is completed. People with TB can continue treatment and normal activities when they are not infectious.

People with TB can be cured if they complete treatment. Irregular drug taking may cause serious reactions, and the development of drug resistance (MDR-TB), which can be difficult to treat. Therefore it is important to take complete treatment.


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