Natural Pregnancy

Pregnancy is the result of a chain of events. In the middle of the menstrual cycle an egg is released from one of the ovaries (ovulation). The egg must travel through the fallopian tube towards the uterus (Womb). If sexual intercourse occurs, the man’s sperm must join with (fertilize) the egg along the way. The fertilized egg (embryo) travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus and attach (implant). While this may seem simple, in fact many things can happen to prevent pregnancy from occurring.

What is Infertility?

Infertility is usually defined as the inability of a couple to conceive a child despite trying for one year of unprotected intercourse. The inability to conceive after one or more successful pregnancies is called secondary infertility.

What causes infertility in women?

Female infertility refers to a woman's inability to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It can be caused by various factors affecting ovulation, fallopian tube function, or the uterus:

1. Ovulation Disorders: Problems with ovulation are a common cause of female infertility. Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hormonal imbalances, thyroid disorders, and premature ovarian insufficiency (early menopause) can disrupt ovulation.

2. Fallopian Tube Disorders: The fallopian tubes are essential for transporting eggs from the ovaries to the uterus and providing a site for fertilization. Damage or blockages in the fallopian tubes, often due to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, previous surgeries, or ectopic pregnancies, can prevent the egg and sperm from meeting.

3. Uterine or Cervical Disorders: Abnormalities in the uterus or cervix can interfere with implantation or the ability of the sperm to reach the egg. Conditions such as uterine fibroids, polyps, adhesions (scar tissue), or cervical stenosis can impact fertility.

4. Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can affect fertility by disrupting normal reproductive anatomy and function.

5. Age-related Factors: Advanced maternal age is associated with a decline in fertility due to a decrease in the quantity and quality of eggs, as well as an increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities in embryos.

6. Lifestyle Factors: Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, obesity, and high levels of stress can negatively impact fertility in women.

7. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, autoimmune diseases, or thyroid disorders, can affect fertility by disrupting hormonal balance or interfering with reproductive organs' function.

8. Genetic Factors: In some cases, genetic abnormalities can affect fertility by causing conditions like Turner syndrome or Fragile X syndrome.

Diagnosis of female infertility typically involves a comprehensive medical history, physical examination, assessment of menstrual cycles, and various tests such as hormonal assays, imaging studies (e.g., ultrasound), and procedures like hysterosalpingography (HSG) or laparoscopy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive techniques like intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

What Causes Infertility in Men?

Male infertility refers to a man's inability to impregnate a fertile female partner despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It can be caused by various factors affecting sperm production, sperm motility, or the delivery of sperm:

1. Sperm Production Disorders: Conditions like a varicocele (enlarged veins in the scrotum), hormonal imbalances, genetic factors (such as Klinefelter syndrome), infections (e.g., mumps orchitis), and exposure to toxins or radiation can disrupt sperm production in the testes.

2. Sperm Motility Disorders: Sperm needs to be able to move efficiently to reach and fertilize the egg. Conditions such as asthenozoospermia (reduced sperm motility) can hinder this process.

3. Ejaculatory Dysfunction: Problems with ejaculation, such as retrograde ejaculation (ejaculation of semen into the bladder instead of out through the penis) or erectile dysfunction, can contribute to male infertility.

4. Genetic Factors: Certain genetic abnormalities can affect sperm production or function, leading to infertility. For example, Y chromosome deletions or mutations can impact sperm quality.

5. Environmental Factors: Exposure to environmental toxins, such as pesticides, heavy metals, or certain chemicals, can impair sperm production or function.

6. Lifestyle Factors: Habits like smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, obesity, and high levels of stress can negatively impact sperm quality and fertility.

7. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, or autoimmune diseases, can affect fertility by disrupting hormonal balance or interfering with sperm production.

8. Age: While not as significant as in women, advanced age in men can decrease fertility due to reduced sperm quality and quantity.

Diagnosis of male infertility typically involves a comprehensive medical history, physical examination, semen analysis, and sometimes additional tests like hormonal assays, genetic testing, or imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive techniques like intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Which Partner Is Responsible?
  • 40% are related to the women (Female factor)
  • 40% are related to the man (Male factor)
  • 10% are due to couple problems (Male-female both)
  • 10% have unknown causes (Unexplained factors)

Treatment includes medication or surgery, 80 to 85 percent of infertility cases are treated with drugs or surgery. Others may require Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART). Sometimes combination of treatments is necessary to correct the problem. Investigation reports will also guide which line of treatment will be most beneficial keeping in mind medical history, age, duration of infertility, etc.

What Is IVF, And How Can It Help You?

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a widely used assisted reproductive technology (ART) that helps individuals and couples overcome infertility by facilitating conception outside the body.

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART) that helps individuals or couples who are facing challenges with fertility. It involves the joining of a woman's egg and a man's sperm in a laboratory dish outside the body. This process, which is particularly useful in treating various causes of infertility, including advanced maternal age, damaged or blocked fallopian tubes, endometriosis, male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility, aims to facilitate fertilization and embryo development, ultimately leading to a successful pregnancy.

The IVF treatment at Arpit Test Tube Baby Centre encompasses several key stages, each crucial to the overall process. These stages include:

1. Ovarian Stimulation: The woman undergoes hormonal therapy to stimulate her ovaries to produce multiple eggs. This is typically achieved through the administration of fertility drugs such as gonadotropins or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

2. Monitoring: Throughout the ovarian stimulation phase, the woman's response is closely monitored using blood tests and ultrasound scans to track follicle development and hormone levels.

3. Egg Retrieval: Once the eggs reach maturity, they are retrieved from the woman's ovaries using a minor surgical procedure called transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval. This procedure is usually performed under sedation or anesthesia.

4. Sperm Collection: On the same day as egg retrieval, the male partner provides a semen sample, which is processed in the laboratory to isolate healthy, motile sperm.

5. Fertilization: In the laboratory, the retrieved eggs are fertilized with the sperm using one of two main methods: conventional insemination (placing sperm and eggs together in a culture dish) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected directly into each mature egg.

6. Embryo Culture: The fertilized eggs (embryos) are cultured in a special incubator for several days, typically up to five or six days, during which they undergo development and cell division.

7. Embryo Transfer: After the embryos have developed, one or more of the highest quality embryos are selected for transfer into the woman's uterus. This is usually performed 3 to 5 days after egg retrieval, and it involves a thin catheter being inserted through the cervix to deliver the embryos into the uterine cavity.

8. Cryopreservation (Optional): Any additional high-quality embryos that are not transferred can be cryopreserved (frozen) for future use.

9. Pregnancy Test: Approximately 10 to 14 days after embryo transfer, a pregnancy test is conducted to determine whether implantation and pregnancy have occurred.

10. Follow-up: If pregnancy occurs, the woman will receive ongoing prenatal care. If pregnancy does not occur or if there are remaining frozen embryos, further IVF cycles may be considered.

The entire IVF cycle generally spans about three wееks, although certain circumstances may necessitate the process to be divided into parts, potentially leading to delays. It's important to note that IVF can involve the usage of the woman’s eggs and the male partner’s sperm, or it may encompass the utilization of sperm, eggs, or embryos from anonymous donors. In some instances, a gestational carrier, also referred to as a surrogate mother, may be еngagеd for the embryo implantation, a process known as surrogacy.

When Is IVF Treatment Recommended?

IVF treatment is recommended for couples who are struggling with infertility and are unable to conceive naturally. Some common reasons for recommending IVF include:

  • Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes: They prevent еgg-spеrm mееting.
  • Male infertility: Low sperm count, poor quality, or vasectomy.
  • Unexplained infertility: Cause unknown after testing
  • Ovulation disorders: Irregular or absent ovulation.
  • Endometriosis: Tissue grows outside the uterus, impacting fertility
  • Advanced maternal age: Lower success rat over 35, IVF considered еarliеr.
Factors affecting the success rate of IVF:

Patient Factors -

  • Age: Women under 35 have the highest success rates, declining significantly after 40.
  • Ovarian rеsеrvе: Higher AMH (Anti-Mullerian hormone) levels indicate better egg quality and quantity.
  • Sperm quality: Motility, count, and morphology of sperm influence fertilization and embryo development.
  • Underlying medical conditions: Endometriosis, PCOS, fibroids, or other medical conditions can impact implantation.
  • Lifestyle factors: Smoking, obesity, excessive alcohol, and drug use can decrease success rates.

Treatment Factors -

  • Number of IVF cycles: some couples achieve success on the first try, while others may nееd multiple attempts.
  • Embryo quality: Good-quality embryos have a higher chance of implantation and pregnancy.
  • Type of IVF technique: Advanced techniques like ICSI may be nееdlе for specific cases, with varying success rates.

Other ART (Assisted Reproductive Techniques)

  • Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI)
  • IVM
  • IMSI
  • ICSI (Micromanipulation)
  • Oocyte Donation
  • Laser Assisted Hatching
Artificial Insemination (IUI)

This procedure relies on the natural ability of sperm to fertilize an egg within the reproductive tract. The sperm from the male partner is collected and then washed in the lab to improve motility and concentrated sperm are then placed in the uterus using a thin catheter inserted through the cervix during the most fertile time in the menstrual cycle.

IUI Is Often Recommended for Women or Couples Who:

  • Have ovulation problems and are undergoing ovulation induction
  • Are unable to have normal intercourse
  • Have mild male factor infertility
  • Have unexplained infertility

Donor Sperm is used only when a male partner has an abnormal semen report. The procedure is simple and does not require anesthesia or hospitalization.

IVM (In Vitro Maturation) - New ART Procedure:

In vitro egg maturation or IVM - Instead of removing fully mature eggs from the ovaries and then fertilizing them, IVF Specialists remove immature eggs, ripen them in a lab dish, and then add sperm. The rest of the procedure is the same as IVF, the time required for stimulation is reduced greatly. This may be particularly useful for women who suffer from polycystic ovarian syndrome, a hormonal disorder that disrupts ovulation.

IMSI Intracytoplasmic Morphologically selected Sperm Injection (IMSI):

A specialized technique used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) to select the highest quality sperm for fertilization. IMSI is typically recommended for couples with male factor infertility, where conventional sperm selection methods may not be sufficient to identify the highest quality sperm for fertilization. By selecting sperm with the best morphological characteristics, IMSI aims to improve the chances of successful fertilization and embryo development, ultimately leading to better outcomes in IVF treatments.

Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI):

Also known as micromanipulation. The Approach to male fertility management has changed over the last few years. Patients who had compromised semen samples had to undergo years of medication and surgical manoeuvers and only a few patients benefited. Now with the advancement of ART techniques, a conventional method of treating male infertility has been replaced by ICSI, a proven and wholly acclaimed scientific procedure. This revolutionary technique we performed has given fresh hope to many men whose chance to father their children was slim.

ICSI is indicated when few sperms are available or no sperms are available IVF is not possible or unexplained fertilization failure or low fertilization in previous IVF cycles. ICSI can benefit 90% of patients with azoospermia after confirming the presence of sperms in the testicular biopsy.

In this procedure, eggs are retrieved (as in IVF) from the female partner, and under an inverted microscope, each egg is injected with a single sperm isolated from the male partner's semen or by sperm collected from the testis (TESA/MESA). This is done as an adjunct to IVF.

Oocyte Donation

Oocyte Donation is for women whose ovaries are not functioning or have been surgically removed. In this procedure another women will be the egg donor. The donated eggs will be fertilized with sperm of the husband of the recipient woman. The embryos are then transferred in the uterus of the recipient.

Laser Assisted Hatching

Assisted Laser Hatching may help couples who have had many attempts of assisted reproductive procedures without success. Embryo implantation is one of the greatest barriers to success in “In Vitro Fertilization” (IVF) cycle. When Embryos are transferred into the woman’s uterus, they are covered by an outer coating called the Zona Pellucida, once the embryo is able to “hatch”, a necessary step for implantation. In certain situations, this step is less likely to naturally occur in women of higher age, women with elevated serum FSH levels and women who have failed to achieve a pregnancy in a prior IVF cycle. A hole is created with the use of a laser beam in the Zona of the embryo before it is transferred to the uterus. It facilitates improved implantation and increases the chances to pregnancy.

PGD (Preimplantation genetic diagnosis):

PGD is a technique used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) to screen embryos for genetic disorders before they are implanted into the uterus. This technique allows prospective parents to select embryos that are free from certain genetic abnormalities or diseases, increasing the chances of a healthy pregnancy and reducing the risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring.

Semen analysis by using Artificial Intelligence:

Using artificial intelligence (AI) in semen analysis is an innovative approach that has the potential to improve accuracy, efficiency, and objectivity in assessing semen quality. Here's how AI can be applied in this context:

1. Sperm Detection and Counting: AI algorithms can be trained to accurately detect and count sperm cells in semen samples. This process involves analyzing images or videos of the sample captured under a microscope. AI can automate this task, reducing the time and effort required for manual counting by laboratory technicians.

2. Sperm Morphology Analysis: AI can also be used to assess the morphology (shape and structure) of sperm cells. By analyzing images of sperm cells, AI algorithms can identify abnormalities such as head defects, tail deformities, or other irregularities that may affect fertility.

3. Sperm Motility Assessment: Assessing sperm motility (movement) is crucial for evaluating fertility potential. AI algorithms can analyze videos of sperm motility captured under a microscope and classify sperm cells based on their movement characteristics, such as progressive motility, non-progressive motility, or no motility.

4. Quality Control: AI can assist in maintaining quality control standards in semen analysis by standardizing the analysis process and reducing variability between different laboratory technicians. This can help ensure consistent and reliable results across different semen analysis procedures.

5. Predictive Analytics: AI algorithms can analyze data from semen analysis results, along with other clinical and demographic factors, to predict fertility outcomes or recommend personalized treatment plans for couples undergoing fertility evaluation and treatment.

By leveraging AI in semen analysis, Doctors can streamline the assessment of male fertility, improve diagnostic accuracy, and enhance patient care in the field of reproductive medicine.

Blastocyst Transfer

It has been proved that growing embryos In Vitro for a longer period allows the selection of the best embryos and there is a better chance of implantation if these embryos are transferred 5 days following ovum pickup. It also increases the pregnancy rate and reduces the chances of multiple pregnancies.

Social Egg Freezing/Oocyte Cryopreservation

"Social eggs" refers to the practice of women undergoing egg retrieval and freezing their eggs for future use, typically for reasons unrelated to medical necessity. This process is often chosen by women who wish to preserve their fertility for various personal or social reasons, such as career advancement, not yet finding a suitable partner, or undergoing medical treatments that may affect fertility. Egg freezing, also known as oocyte cryopreservation, Freezing of embryos allows a significant chance of pregnancy after a single ovarian stimulation. The excess good-quality embryos can be stored cryogenically for future initiation of pregnancy without having to go through superovulation and egg collection all over again.


Latest in Cryopreservation is Vitrification Technique. The advantage of Vitrification is that there is no ice crystal formation the survival chances of vitrified embryos are higher compared to conventional cryopreservation methods. Post-thaw vitrified embryos have greater chances of survival thus resulting in a greater pregnancy outcome. Initially, embryos are kept for five years but can be extended to ten years.

The Embryo Bank

Many of today's modern couples choose to start a family later in life. Embryo Banking allows these couples the chance to freeze embryos and delay starting their families until the time is right. Also, during the IVF process many couples naturally produce an embryo surplus. Freezing surplus embryos until future cycles can circumvent additional egg retrievals.

Semen Bank

We maintain a dedicated Semen Bank. The male partner’s sperms are routinely frozen for cryocooling and IVF. The bank contains frozen sperm from voluntary donors with various backgrounds and physical characteristics to match individual needs. Donors are screened thoroughly to rule out transmission of any infectious or genetic diseases. We ensure close confidentiality for both the donor and the recipient.

Surrogate Mothers

There are some women whose ovaries function normally but the uterus is absent, diseased, or unable to carry pregnancy to term. In such cases, couples can have their embryos transferred to a healthy surrogate mother through an IVF procedure, who will then carry the pregnancy to term.

Why Choose Us

Arpit Test Tube Baby Centre at Jeevan Jyoti Hospital has the Best IVF specialist having 25 years of experience. Our success rate is almost 70% which is much higher in comparison to many renound IVF centres. For more details please visit: http://www.arpitivf.com